Capital & Class. - 1990. - Issue 41 issue 41

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To develop guidelines, procedures, and rules to establish, implement, and enforce the School-Based Management and Accountability Program under Article 8B of this Chapter in order to improve student performance, increase local flexibility and control, and promote economy and efficiency. To formulate rules and regulations for the enforcement of the compulsory attendance law. To manage and operate a system of insurance for public school property, as provided in Article 38 of this Chapter.

In making substantial policy changes in administration, curriculum, or programs the Board should conduct hearings throughout the regions of the State, whenever feasible, in order that the public may be heard regarding these matters. The Board shall develop a comprehensive plan to revise content standards and the standard course of study in the core academic areas of reading, writing, mathematics, science, history, geography, and civics.

The Board shall involve and survey a representative sample of parents, teachers, and the public to help determine academic content standard priorities and usefulness of the content standards. A full review of available and relevant academic content standards that are rigorous, specific, sequenced, clear, focused, and measurable, whenever possible, shall be a part of the process of the development of content standards. The revised content standards developed in the core academic areas shall i reflect high expectations for students and an in-depth mastery of the content; ii be clearly grounded in the content of each academic area; iii be defined grade-by-grade and course-by-course; iv be understandable to parents and teachers; v be developed in full recognition of the time available to teach the core academic areas at each grade level; and vi be measurable, whenever possible, in a reliable, valid, and efficient manner for accountability purposes.

High school course content standards shall include the knowledge and skills necessary to pursue further postsecondary education or to attain employment in the 21st century economy. The high school course content standards also shall be aligned with the minimum undergraduate course requirements for admission to the constituent institutions of The University of North Carolina. The Board also shall develop and implement an ongoing process to align State programs and support materials with the revised academic content standards for each core academic area on a regular basis.

Alignment shall include revising textbook criteria, support materials, State tests, teacher and school administrator preparation, and ongoing professional development programs to be compatible with content standards. The Board shall develop and make available to teachers and parents support materials, including teacher and parent guides, for academic content standards.

The State Board of Education shall work in collaboration with the Board of Governors of The University of North Carolina to ensure that teacher and school administrator degree programs, ongoing professional development, and other university activity in the State's public schools align with the State Board's priorities.

The Board may develop exit standards that shall be required for high school graduation. The Board shall require the following for high school graduation:. Successful completion of instruction in cardiopulmonary resuscitation as provided in G. The following restrictions apply to the Board regarding Algebra I and high school graduation projects:. The Board shall not adopt or enforce any rule that requires Algebra I as a graduation standard or as a requirement for a high school diploma for any student whose individualized education program i identifies the student as learning disabled in the area of mathematics and ii states that this learning disability will prevent the student from mastering Algebra I.

The Board shall not require any student to prepare a high school graduation project as a condition of graduation from high school; local boards of education may, however, require their students to complete a high school graduation project. For this purpose, the Board may use funds received from gifts or grants and, with the approval of the Director of the Budget, may use State funds which the Board may find available in any budget administered by the Board.

Such research or projects may be conducted during the summer months and involve one or more local school units as the Board may determine. The Board may use any available funds for such purposes. The plan shall include, but is not limited to, the training, assignment of responsibilities, and appropriate additional reimbursement for individuals participating in the program.

The State Board of Education is authorized and directed to develop an implementation schedule and a program funding formula that will enable each high school to have a qualified sports medicine and emergency paramedical program by July 1, The State Board of Education is authorized and directed to establish minimum educational standards necessary to enable individuals serving as sports medicine and emergency paramedical staff to provide such services, including first aid and emergency life saving skills, to students participating in school activities.

The position evaluation descriptions required in this subdivision are to be used by local boards of education as the basis for assignment of noncertified employees to an appropriate pay grade in accordance with salary grades and ranges adopted by the State Board of Education. No appropriations are required by this subdivision. Support personnel refers to all public school employees who are not required by statute or regulation to be certified in order to be employed.

The State Board of Education is authorized and empowered to adopt all necessary rules for full implementation of all schedules to the extent that State funds are made available for support personnel. Salary schedules for the following public school support personnel shall be adopted by the State Board of Education: school finance officer, office support personnel, teacher assistants, maintenance supervisors, custodial personnel, and transportation personnel.

The Board shall classify these support positions in terms of uniform pay grades included in the salary schedule of the State Human Resources Commission. By the end of the third payroll period of the fiscal year, local boards of education shall place State-allotted office support personnel, teacher assistants, and custodial personnel on the salary schedule adopted by the State Board of Education so that the average salary paid is the State-allotted amount for the category.

In placing employees on the salary schedule, the local board shall consider the education, training, and experience of each employee, including experience in other local school administrative units. It is the intent of the General Assembly that a local school administrative unit not fail to employ an employee who was employed for the prior school year in order to implement the provisions of this sub-subdivision.

The Department of Public Instruction shall provide technical assistance to local school administrative units regarding the implementation of this sub-subdivision. Salary schedules for other support personnel, including but not limited to maintenance and school food service personnel, shall be adopted by the State Board of Education. These schedules shall apply if the local board of education does not adopt a salary schedule of its own for personnel paid from other than State appropriations.

Such policies, rules, and regulations shall include, but are not limited to, fund allocations and fiscal support to assure the effective and efficient use of funds appropriated by the General Assembly in support of the school transportation system. Nothing herein shall be construed to affect in any way or to lessen in any way the full and complete authority of local boards of education to assign pupils to schools in accordance with G.

The State Board of Education shall adopt standards and procedures for local school administrative units to provide timely, accurate, and complete fiscal and personnel information, including payroll information, on all school personnel. The State Board of Education shall develop and implement a Uniform Education Reporting System that shall include requirements for collecting, processing, and reporting fiscal, personnel, and student data, by means of electronic transfer of data files from local computers to the State Computer Center through the State Communications Network.

The State Board of Education shall comply with the provisions of G. The State Board of Education shall require local boards of education to provide to the parents of children at a school all information except for confidential information received about that school from institutions of higher education pursuant to G. The State Board of Education shall modify the Uniform Education Reporting System to provide clear, accurate, and standard information on the use of funds at the unit and school level.

The plan shall provide information that will enable the General Assembly to determine State, local, and federal expenditures for personnel at the unit and school level. The plan also shall allow the tracking of expenditures for textbooks, educational supplies and equipment, capital outlay, at-risk students, and other purposes. When practicable, reporting requirements developed by the State Board of Education as part of the Uniform Education Reporting System under this subdivision shall be incorporated into the PowerSchool application or any other component of the Instructional Improvement System to minimize duplicative reporting by local school administrative units.

The State Board of Education shall develop a process for local school administrative units to annually identify enrolled military-connected students using the Uniform Education Reporting System. The identification of military-connected students shall not be used for the purposes of determining school achievement, growth, and performance scores as required by G. The identification of military-connected students is not a public record within the meaning of G.

For purposes of this section, a "military-connected student" means a student enrolled in a local school administrative unit who has a parent, step-parent, sibling, or any other person who resides in the same household serving in the active or reserve components of the Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, Coast Guard, or National Guard.

Beginning in the school year, and annually thereafter, the identification of military-connected students for all local school administrative units shall be completed by January 31 of each school year. The State Board of Education shall adopt policies to ensure that local school administrative units are not required by the State Board of Education, the State Superintendent, or the Department of Public Instruction staff to i provide information that is already available on the student information management system or housed within the Department of Public Instruction; ii provide the same written information more than once during a school year unless the information has changed during the ensuing period; iii complete forms, for children with disabilities, that are not necessary to ensure compliance with the federal Individuals with Disabilities Education Act IDEA ; or iv provide information that is unnecessary to comply with State or federal law and not relevant to student outcomes and the efficient operation of the public schools.

Notwithstanding the foregoing, the State Board may require information available on its student information management system or require the same information twice if the State Board can demonstrate a compelling need and can demonstrate there is not a more expeditious manner of getting the information. The State Board shall permit schools and local school administrative units to submit all reports to the Department of Public Instruction electronically. The State Board of Education, in collaboration with the education roundtables within the Department of Public Instruction, shall consolidate all plans that affect the school community, including school improvement plans.

The consolidated plan shall be posted on each school's Web site for easy access by the public and by school personnel. The State Board shall adopt standard definitions for acts of school violence and shall require local boards of education to report them to the State Board in a standard format adopted by the State Board. The State Board shall submit its report on acts of violence in the public schools to the Joint Legislative Education Oversight Committee by March 15 of each year. With regard to middle schools and high schools, the rules shall provide for the following:.

All coaches, school nurses, athletic directors, first responders, volunteers, students who participate in interscholastic athletic activities, and the parents of those students shall receive, on an annual basis, a concussion and head injury information sheet.

School employees, first responders, volunteers, and students must sign the sheet and return it to the coach before they can participate in interscholastic athletic activities, including tryouts, practices, or competition. Parents must sign the sheet and return it to the coach before their children can participate in any such interscholastic athletic activities. The signed sheets shall be maintained in accordance with sub-subdivision d.

For the purpose of this subdivision, a concussion is a traumatic brain injury caused by a direct or indirect impact to the head that results in disruption of normal brain function, which may or may not result in loss of consciousness. If a student participating in an interscholastic athletic activity exhibits signs or symptoms consistent with concussion, the student shall be removed from the activity at that time and shall not be allowed to return to play or practice that day.

The student shall not return to play or practice on a subsequent day until the student is evaluated by and receives written clearance for such participation from i a physician licensed under Article 1 of Chapter 90 of the General Statutes with training in concussion management, ii a neuropsychologist licensed under Article 18A of Chapter 90 of the General Statutes with training in concussion management and working in consultation with a physician licensed under Article 1 of Chapter 90 of the General Statutes, iii an athletic trainer licensed under Article 34 of Chapter 90 of the General Statutes, iv a physician assistant, consistent with the limitations of G.

Each school shall develop a venue specific emergency action plan to deal with serious injuries and acute medical conditions in which the condition of the patient may deteriorate rapidly. The plan shall include a delineation of roles, methods of communication, available emergency equipment, and access to and plan for emergency transport. This plan must be i in writing, ii reviewed by an athletic trainer licensed in North Carolina, iii approved by the principal of the school, iv distributed to all appropriate personnel, v posted conspicuously at all venues, and vi reviewed and rehearsed annually by all licensed athletic trainers, first responders, coaches, school nurses, athletic directors, and volunteers for interscholastic athletic activities.

Each school shall maintain complete and accurate records of its compliance with the requirements of this subdivision pertaining to head injuries. The State Board of Education may authorize a designated organization to apply and enforce the Board's rules governing participation in interscholastic athletic activities at the high school level. These standards shall include i a description of the programs and services that are recommended to be provided in alternative learning programs and ii a process for ensuring that an assignment is appropriate for the student and that the student's parents are involved in the decision.

The State Board also shall adopt policies that define what constitutes an alternative school and an alternative learning program. The State Board of Education shall also adopt standards to require that local school administrative units shall use i the teachers allocated for students assigned to alternative learning programs pursuant to the regular teacher allotment and ii the teachers allocated for students assigned to alternative learning programs only to serve the needs of these students. The State Board of Education shall provide technical support to local school administrative units to assist them in developing and implementing plans and proposals for alternative learning programs.

As part of its evaluation of the effectiveness of these programs, the State Board shall, through the application of the accountability system developed under G. If appropriate, the Board may modify this system to adapt to the specific characteristics of these schools. Also as part of its evaluation, the State Board shall evaluate its standards adopted under this subdivision and make any necessary changes to those standards based on strategies that have been proven successful in improving student achievement and shall report to the Joint Legislative Education Oversight Committee by April 15, to determine if any changes are necessary to improve the implementation of successful alternative learning programs and alternative schools.

Furthermore, by November 15 of each year, the State Board shall submit reports to that Committee regarding schools identified as low-performing, school improvement plans found to significantly improve student performance, personnel actions taken in low-performing schools, and recommendations for additional legislation to improve student performance and increase local flexibility.

Develop a growth model establishing annual goals for continuous and substantial improvement in the four-year cohort graduation rate by local school administrative units.


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Establish as a short-term goal that local school administrative units meet the annual growth model goals for improvement in the four-year cohort graduation rate beginning with the graduating class of and continuing annually thereafter. The State Board of Education shall report to the Joint Legislative Education Oversight Committee by November 15, , and annually thereafter on the goals, benchmarks, and recommendations described in this section.

Such goals, benchmarks, and recommendations shall appropriately differentiate for students with disabilities and other specially identified subcategories within each four-year cohort. The report shall include goals and benchmarks by local school administrative unit, the strategies and recommendations for achieving the goals and benchmarks, any evidence or data supporting the strategies and recommendations, and the identity of the persons employed by the State Board of Education who are responsible for oversight of local school administrative units in achieving the goals and benchmarks.

The data shall be reported in a disaggregated manner, reflecting the local school administrative unit, race, gender, grade level, ethnicity, and disability status of each affected student. Such data shall be readily available to the public. The State Board shall not include students that have been expelled from school when calculating the dropout rate.

The Board shall maintain a separate record of the number of students who are expelled from school and the reasons for the expulsion. The plan shall include, at a minimum, how dropouts are counted and the methodology for calculating the dropout rate, the ability to track students movements among schools and districts, and the ability to provide information on who drops out and why. To define what is equivalent to a high school diploma for the purposes of G. These rules shall apply to all educational programs offered in the State by public schools, charter schools, nonpublic schools, or community colleges.

To establish the procedures a person who is or was enrolled in a public school or in a charter school must follow and the requirements that person shall meet to obtain a driving eligibility certificate. To require the person who is required under G. The person seeking the certificate is eligible for the certificate under G.

To provide for an appeal to an appropriate education authority by a person who is denied a driving eligibility certificate. These rules shall apply to public schools and charter schools. To define exemplary student behavior and to define what constitutes the successful completion of a drug or alcohol treatment counseling program.

The State Board also shall develop policies as to when it is appropriate to notify the Division of Motor Vehicles that a person who is or was enrolled in a public school or in a charter school no longer meets the requirements for a driving eligibility certificate. The State Board shall develop a form for parents, guardians, or emancipated juveniles, as appropriate, to provide their written, irrevocable consent for a school to disclose to the Division of Motor Vehicles that the student no longer meets the conditions for a driving eligibility certificate under G.

Other than identifying under which statutory subsection the student is no longer eligible, no other details or information concerning the student's school record shall be released pursuant to this consent. This form shall be used for students enrolled in public schools or charter schools. The State Board of Education may use funds appropriated for drivers education to cover the costs of driving eligibility certificates.

The purpose of each task force is to advise and work with its local board of education and administration on closing the gap in academic achievement and on developing a collaborative plan for achieving that goal. Identify which schools are meeting adequate yearly progress with subgroups as specified in the No Child Left Behind Act of ;. Study the instructional, administrative, and fiscal practices and policies employed by the schools selected by the State Board of Education that are meeting adequate yearly progress specified in the No Child Left Behind Act of ;.

Create assistance models for each subgroup based on the practices and policies used in schools that are meeting adequate yearly progress. The schools of education at the constituent institutions of The University of North Carolina, in collaboration with the University of North Carolina Center for School Leadership Development, shall assist the State Board of Education in developing these models; and. Offer technical assistance based on these assistance models to local school administrative units not meeting adequate yearly progress, giving priority to those local school administrative units with high concentrations of schools that are not meeting adequate yearly progress.

The State Board of Education shall determine the number of local school administrative units that can be served effectively in the first two years. This technical assistance shall include peer assistance and professional development by teachers, support personnel, and administrators in schools with subgroups that are meeting adequate yearly progress.

The State Board also shall consult with local school administrative unit employees who have been designated as responsible for coordinating their individual unit's efforts to comply with federal regulations adopted under Section of the Rehabilitation Act of , as amended, 29 U. In its development of these guidelines, the State Board shall refer to the guidelines recommended by the American Diabetes Association for the management of children with diabetes in the school and day care setting and shall consider recent resolutions by the United States Department of Education's Office of Civil Rights of investigations into complaints alleging discrimination against students with diabetes.

The guidelines adopted by the State Board shall include:. Procedures for the development of an individual diabetes care plan at the written request of the student's parent or guardian, and involving the parent or guardian, the student's health care provider, the student's classroom teacher, the student if appropriate, the school nurse if available, and other appropriate school personnel.

Information to be included in a diabetes care plan, including the responsibilities and appropriate staff development for teachers and other school personnel, an emergency care plan, the identification of allowable actions to be taken, the extent to which the student is able to participate in the student's diabetes care and management, and other information necessary for teachers and other school personnel in order to offer appropriate assistance and support to the student.

The State Board shall ensure that the information and allowable actions included in a diabetes care plan as required in this subdivision meet or exceed the American Diabetes Association's recommendations for the management of children with diabetes in the school and day care setting. Information and staff development to be made available to teachers and other school personnel in order to appropriately support and assist students with diabetes. The State Board shall ensure that these guidelines are updated as necessary and shall ensure that the guidelines and any subsequent changes are published and disseminated to local school administrative units.

The State Board of Education shall also adopt policies directing school guidance counselors to make ninth grade students aware of the potential to complete the high school courses required for college entry in a three-year period.

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All schools, especially schools that hold school on Memorial Day, shall instruct students on the significance of Memorial Day. Recommended programs may be integrated into lesson plans and may include veteran participation and veteran sponsorship in the form of an Adopt-A-Veteran program.

All schools are encouraged to collaborate with veterans and veteran service organizations during Veterans' History Awareness Month to designate time for appropriate commemorative activities. Develop guidelines for sealing existing arsenic-treated wood in playground equipment or establish a time line for removing existing arsenic-treated wood on playgrounds and testing the soil on school grounds for contamination caused by the leaching of arsenic-treated wood in other areas where children may be at particularly high risk of exposure. Establish guidelines to reduce students' exposure to diesel emissions that can occur as a result of unnecessary school bus idling, nose-to-tail parking, and inefficient route assignments.

Study methods for mold and mildew prevention and mitigation and incorporate recommendations into the public school facilities guidelines as needed. These guidelines may be updated as needed to reflect changes in technology. Establish guidelines for notification of students' parents, guardians, or custodians as well as school staff of pesticide use on school grounds.

The agreements should delineate opportunities, guidelines, and the roles and responsibilities of the parties, including responsibilities for maintenance and liability. The State Board shall adopt rigorous and appropriate academic standards for accreditation after consideration of i the standards of regional and national accrediting agencies, ii the academic standards adopted in accordance with subdivision 9c of this section, and iii other information it deems appropriate.

The local school administrative unit shall compensate the State Board for the actual costs of the accreditation process. These endorsements shall reflect courses completed, overall grade point average, reading achievement, and other criteria as developed by the State Board of Education. A student shall only receive a high school diploma endorsement if that student receives on a nationally norm-referenced college admissions test for reading, either administered under G.

A student may retake a nationally norm-referenced test as many times as necessary to achieve the required benchmark score for reading in order to receive a high school diploma endorsement prior to the student's graduation. The State Board of Education shall report annually to the Joint Legislative Education Oversight Committee on i the impact of awarding these endorsements on high school graduation, college acceptance and remediation, and post-high school employment rates; ii the number of students who had to retake a nationally norm-referenced college admissions test to meet the reading benchmark score required by this subdivision to receive a high school diploma endorsement; and iii the number of students who were not awarded a high school diploma endorsement solely because of the inability to meet the benchmark score for reading as required by this subdivision.

The notice shall include details about the grant and a brief summary of any anticipated policy implications of accepting the grant. These models shall be designed to reduce the number of injuries resulting in workers' compensation claims and ensure injured employees with workers' compensation claims return to work in accordance with current State Board of Education policy.

The Board shall ensure that a child with a disability as defined under G. The Department of Public Instruction shall also notify a superintendent of any plan to conduct a student or parent survey in the local school administrative unit. The superintendent shall be given a reasonable amount of time following notification to contact the Department with feedback on the survey prior to the survey being conducted in the local school administrative unit.

Training of State Board members. The State Board of Education shall establish minimum training requirements for members of the State Board of Education. All Board members shall participate in training programs, as required by the State Board. For the purposes of this section, the term "immediate family member" means a spouse, parent, child, brother, sister, grandparent, or grandchild. The term includes the step, half, and in-law relationships.

The term "coworker" means that the employee donating the leave is employed by the same agency, department, institution, university, local school administrative unit, or community college as the employee whose immediate family member is receiving the leave. A donor of sick leave to a nonfamily member recipient shall not donate more than five days of sick leave per year to any one nonfamily member recipient. The combined total of sick leave donated to a recipient from nonfamily member donors shall not exceed 20 days per year.

Donated sick leave shall not be used for retirement purposes, and employees who donate sick leave shall be notified in writing of the State retirement credit consequences of donating sick leave. Duty to maintain confidentiality of certain records. Except as otherwise provided by federal law, local boards of education and their officers and employees shall provide to the State Board and to the Superintendent all information needed to carry out their duties. It is unlawful for any member of the State Board of Education, the Superintendent of Public Instruction, or any employee or officer of the State Board of Education or the Department of Public Instruction to disclose any of this information that the local board or its officers or employees could not lawfully disclose.

This disclosure is a Class 1 misdemeanor. Prohibition on use of State funds to employ private counsel in litigation. As provided in G. As used in this section, litigation services include legal work conducted in anticipation of or in preparation for any suit or action.

As used in this section, private counsel includes any licensed attorney retained, engaged, or otherwise representing the State Board of Education but does not include a licensed attorney who holds a permanent budgeted position in either the Department of Justice or the State Board of Education. Repealed by Session Laws , c. Authorization for school uniform pilot program. The State Board of Education may authorize up to five local school administrative units to implement pilot programs in which students are required to wear uniforms in public schools.

Prior to selecting the pilot units, the State Board of Education shall develop guidelines for local boards of education to use when establishing requirements for students to wear uniforms in public schools. In developing these guidelines, the State Board shall consider i ways to promote parental and community involvement in the pilot programs, ii relevant State and federal constitutional concerns such as freedom of religion and freedom of speech, and iii the ability of students to purchase the uniforms.

Local boards in the pilot units shall establish requirements, consistent with the State Board's guidelines, for students enrolled in any of their schools to wear uniforms at school during the regular school day. No State funds shall be used for the uniforms. The Superintendent of Public Instruction shall be elected by the qualified voters of the State in and every four years thereafter at the same time and places as members of the General Assembly are elected.

His term of office shall be four years and shall commence on the first day of January next after election and continue until his successor is elected and qualified. If the office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction is vacated by death, resignation, or otherwise, it shall be the duty of the Governor to appoint another to serve until his successor is elected and qualified. Every such vacancy shall be filled by election at the first election for members of the General Assembly that occurs more than 30 days after the vacancy has taken place, and the person chosen shall hold the office for the remainder of the unexpired term fixed in Article III, Sec.

When a vacancy occurs in the office and the term expires on the first day of January succeeding the next election for members of the General Assembly, the Governor shall appoint to fill the vacancy for the unexpired term of the office. Upon the occurrence of a vacancy in the office for any of the causes stated herein, the Governor may appoint an interim officer to perform the duties of that office until a person is appointed or elected pursuant to Article III, Sec. The time of the election of the Superintendent of Public Instruction shall be in accordance with the provisions of Part 1 of Article 15 of Chapter A of the General Statutes.

The election, term and induction into office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction shall be in accordance with the provisions of G. As provided in Article IX, Sec. The Superintendent of Public Instruction shall administer all needed rules and regulations adopted by the State Board of Education through the Department of Public Instruction. In addition to the salary set by the General Assembly in the Current Operations Appropriations Act, longevity pay shall be paid on the same basis as is provided to employees of the State who are subject to the North Carolina Human Resources Act.

All appointments of administrative and supervisory personnel to the staff of the Department of Public Instruction and the State Board of Education, except for certain personnel appointed by the State Board of Education as provided in G. All deeds of conveyance, leases, and contracts affecting real estate, title to which is held by the Board, and all contracts of the Board required to be in writing and under seal, shall be executed in the name of the Board by the chairman and attested by the secretary; and proof of the execution, if required or desired, may be had as provided by law for the proof of corporate instruments.

Where the county board is responsible for appointing members of the board of education of a city administrative unit located within the county, the voters residing within that city school administrative unit shall be eligible to vote for members of the county board of education. The terms of office of the members of boards of education of all school administrative units in this State, who serve on June 25, , shall continue until members are elected and qualified as provided in this section unless modified by local legislation.

All powers and duties conferred and imposed by law respecting public schools, which are not expressly conferred and imposed upon some other official, are conferred and imposed upon local boards of education. Said boards of education shall have general control and supervision of all matters pertaining to the public schools in their respective administrative units and they shall enforce the school law in their respective units. The names of the candidates shall be printed on the ballots without reference to any party affiliation and any qualified voter residing in the county shall be entitled to vote such ballots.

Except as otherwise provided herein, the election shall be conducted according to the provisions of Subchapter III of Chapter A of the General Statutes then governing primary elections. The terms of office of the members shall be staggered so as nearly equal to one half as possible shall expire every two years. The county board of elections of each county shall file with the Bipartisan State Board of Elections and Ethics Enforcement a statement specifying the size and method of election of members of its county board of education.

If no provision is now made by the law for the filling of vacancies in the membership of any city board of education, such vacancy may be filled by the governing body of the city or town embraced by said administrative unit. In the event that any such vacancy is not filled in this manner within 30 days, the State Board of Education may fill such vacancy. At that meeting, newly elected members of the board of education shall qualify by taking the oath of office prescribed in Article VI, Sec.

This subsection shall not have the effect of repealing any local or special acts relating to boards of education of any particular counties whose membership to said boards is chosen by a vote of the people. Membership on a board of education is hereby declared to be an office that, with the exceptions provided above, may be held concurrently with any appointive office, pursuant to Article VI, Sec. If the ballots have been printed at the time the board of elections receives notice of the death or disqualification, the board shall reopen the filing period for three days if the board determines it will have time to reprint the ballots before the election.

In the event the board of elections determines that there is not time enough to reopen the filing period for three days and to reprint the ballots, then the ballots shall not be reprinted and the name of the deceased or disqualified candidate shall remain on the ballot.

Votes cast for such candidate shall not be considered and the candidates receiving the highest number of votes equal to the number of positions to be filled shall be elected. If district boundaries are set by local act or court order and the act or order does not provide a method for revising them, the local board of education shall revise them only for the purpose of i accounting for territory annexed to or excluded from the school administrative unit, and ii correcting population imbalances among the districts shown by a new federal census or caused by exclusions or annexations.

After the General Assembly has ratified an act establishing district boundaries, the local board of education shall not revise them again until a new federal census of population is taken or territory is annexed to or excluded from the school administrative unit, whichever event first occurs.

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After the local board of education has revised district boundaries in conformity with this act, the local board of education shall not revise them again until a new federal census of population is taken or territory is annexed to or excluded from the school administrative unit, whichever event occurs first, except that the board may make an earlier revision of district boundaries it has drawn if it must do so to comply with a court order or to gain approval of a district-revision plan by the U. In establishing district boundaries, the local board of education shall use data derived from the most recent federal census.

Vacancies in offices of county boards elected on partisan basis in certain counties. The tax-levying authority for a local school administrative unit may, under the procedures of G. Funds for the per diem, subsistence, and mileage for all meetings of county and city boards of education shall be provided from the current expense fund budget of the particular county or city. The compensation and expense allowances of members of boards of education shall continue at the same levels as paid on July 1, , until changed by or pursuant to local act or pursuant to this section.

Suspension of duties by State Board. Local boards of education, subject to any paramount powers vested by law in the State Board of Education or any other authorized agency shall have general control and supervision of all matters pertaining to the public schools in their respective local school administrative units; they shall execute the school laws in their units; and shall have authority to make agreements with other boards of education to transfer pupils from one local school administrative unit to another unit when the administration of the schools can be thereby more efficiently and more economically accomplished.

The board may fix the date and time of its organizational meeting. At the organizational meeting the members of all boards shall elect one of their members as chairman for a period of one year, or until his successor is elected and qualified. The chairman of the local board of education shall preside at the meetings of the board, and in the event of his absence or sickness, the board may appoint one of its members temporary chairman.

The superintendent of schools, whether a county or city superintendent, shall be ex officio secretary to his respective board. He shall keep the minutes of the meetings of the board but shall have no vote: Provided, that in the event of a vacancy in the superintendency, the board may elect one of its members to serve temporarily as secretary to the board. A board may elect to hold regular monthly meetings, and to meet in special session upon the call of the chairman or of the secretary as often as the school business of the local school administrative unit may require.

Liability insurance and immunity. Any local board of education, by securing liability insurance as hereinafter provided, is hereby authorized and empowered to waive its governmental immunity from liability for damage by reason of death or injury to person or property caused by the negligence or tort of any agent or employee of such board of education when acting within the scope of his authority or within the course of his employment.

Such immunity shall be deemed to have been waived by the act of obtaining such insurance, but such immunity is waived only to the extent that said board of education is indemnified by insurance for such negligence or tort. Any contract of insurance purchased pursuant to this section shall be issued by a company or corporation duly licensed and authorized to execute insurance contracts in this State or by a qualified insurer as determined by the Department of Insurance and shall by its terms adequately insure the local board of education against liability for damages by reason of death or injury to person or property proximately caused by the negligent act or torts of the agents and employees of said board of education or the agents and employees of a particular school in a local administrative unit when acting within the scope of their authority.

The local board of education shall determine what liabilities and what officers, agents and employees shall be covered by any insurance purchased pursuant to this section. Any company or corporation which enters into a contract of insurance as above described with a local board of education, by such act waives any defense based upon the governmental immunity of such local board of education. Every local board of education in this State is authorized and empowered to pay as a necessary expense the lawful premiums for such insurance. Any person sustaining damages, or in case of death, his personal representative may sue a local board of education insured under this section for the recovery of such damages in any court of competent jurisdiction in this State, but only in the county of such board of education; and it shall be no defense to any such action that the negligence or tort complained of was in pursuance of governmental, municipal or discretionary function of such local board of education if, and to the extent, such local board of education has insurance coverage as provided by this section.

Except as hereinbefore expressly provided, nothing in this section shall be construed to deprive any local board of education of any defense whatsoever to any such action for damages or to restrict, limit, or otherwise affect any such defense which said board of education may have at common law or by virtue of any statute; and nothing in this section shall be construed to relieve any person sustaining damages or any personal representative of any decedent from any duty to give notice of such claim to said local board of education or to commence any civil action for the recovery of damages within the applicable period of time prescribed or limited by statute.

A local board of education may incur liability pursuant to this section only with respect to a claim arising after such board of education has procured liability insurance pursuant to this section and during the time when such insurance is in force. No part of the pleadings which relate to or allege facts as to a defendant's insurance against liability shall be read or mentioned in the presence of the trial jury in any action brought pursuant to this section.

Defense of board of education members and employees. The defense may be provided by the local board of education by its own counsel, or by employing other counsel, or by purchasing insurance which requires that the insurer provide the defense. Nothing in this section shall be deemed to require any local board of education to provide for the defense of any action or proceeding of any nature.

Nothing in this section shall authorize any local board of education to budget funds for the purpose of paying any claim made or civil judgment entered against any of its members or employees or former members and employees if the local board of education finds that such member or employee acted or failed to act because of actual fraud, corruption or actual malice on his part.

Any local board of education may budget for and purchase insurance coverage for payment of claims or judgments pursuant to this section. Nothing in this section shall be deemed to require any local board of education to pay any claim or judgment referred to herein, and the purchase of insurance coverage for payment of any such claim or judgment shall not be deemed an assumption of any liability not covered by such insurance contract, and shall not be deemed an assumption of liability for payment of any claim or judgment in excess of the limits of coverage in such insurance contract.

Subpoenas for the attendance of witnesses may be issued in any and all matters which may lawfully come within the powers of the board and which, in the discretion of the board, require investigation. Local boards of education may request the chief district court judge or the judge's designee to grant approval for the local board of education to issue a subpoena for the production of all tangible things in matters where an employee is suspected of committing job-related misconduct and which, in the discretion of the board, require investigation.

Subpoenas for the production of tangible things may include, but are not limited to, documents, papers, letters, maps, books, photographs, films, sound recordings, magnetic or other tapes, electronic communications, electronic data-processing records, artifacts, or other documentary material, regardless of physical form or characteristics.

In making the determination to approve the subpoena, the judge shall consider the following: i whether the subpoena allows reasonable time for compliance; ii if the subpoena requires disclosure of privileged or other protected matter and if any exception or waiver applies to the privilege or protection; iii whether the individual would be subject to undue burdens or expenses; and iv whether the subpoena is otherwise unreasonable or oppressive.

It shall be the duty of the sheriff or any process serving officer to serve any such subpoenas upon payment of their lawful fees. Local boards of education shall have power to punish for contempt for any disorderly conduct or disturbance tending to disrupt them in the transaction of official business. As used in this subsection, the term "final administrative decision" means a decision of a school employee from which no further appeal to a school administrator is available.

Any person aggrieved by a decision not covered under subdivisions 1 through 4 of this subsection shall have the right to appeal to the superintendent and thereafter shall have the right to petition the local board of education for a hearing, and the local board may grant a hearing regarding any final decision of school personnel within the local school administrative unit.

The local board of education shall notify the person making the petition of its decision whether to grant a hearing. In all appeals to the board it is the duty of the board of education to see that a proper notice is given to all parties concerned and that a record of the hearing is properly entered in the records of the board conducting the hearing. The board of education may designate hearing panels composed of not less than two members of the board to hear and act upon such appeals in the name and on behalf of the board of education.

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An appeal of right brought before a local board of education under subdivision 1 , 2 , or 4 of this subsection may be further appealed to the superior court of the State on the grounds that the local board's decision is in violation of constitutional provisions, is in excess of the statutory authority or jurisdiction of the board, is made upon unlawful procedure, is affected by other error of law, is unsupported by substantial evidence in view of the entire record as submitted, or is arbitrary or capricious. Powers of local boards to regulate parking of motor vehicles.

Rules and regulations adopted hereunder shall be made available for inspection by any person upon request. Such guidelines shall give first priority treatment to the physically handicapped. Any local board of education, by rules and regulations adopted hereunder, may provide for the issuance of stickers, decals, permits or other indicia representing the registration status of vehicles or the eligibility of vehicles to park on school grounds and may prohibit the forgery, counterfeiting, unauthorized transfer or unauthorized use of them.

Any person who removes a vehicle pursuant to this section shall not be held liable for damages for the removal of the vehicle to the owner, lienholder or other person legally entitled to the possession of the vehicle removed; however, any person who intentionally or negligently damages a vehicle in the removal of such vehicle, or intentionally or negligently inflicts injury upon any person in the removal of such vehicle, may be held liable for damages.

A local board of education shall not use public funds to endorse or oppose a referendum, election or a particular candidate for elective office. For purposes of this section, "authorization" includes requests for assistance from guidance counselors or school resource officers. Visits shall be conducted in a private area designated for such use and located away from contact with the general student population. The probation officer shall not initiate direct contact with a student while the student is in class or between classes.

Initial contact with the student shall be made by a school administrator or other designated school employee, who shall direct the student to a private area to meet with the probation officer. In addition to the powers and duties designated in G. To Establish and Maintain Kindergartens. Local boards of education shall provide for their respective local school administrative unit kindergartens as a part of the public school system for all children living in the local school administrative unit who are eligible for admission pursuant to sub-subdivision c.

All kindergarten programs so established shall be subject to the supervision of the Department of Public Instruction and shall be operated in accordance with the standards adopted by the State Board of Education, upon recommendation of the Superintendent of Public Instruction. Among the standards to be adopted by the State Board of Education shall be a provision that the Board will allocate funds for the purpose of operating and administering kindergartens to each school administrative unit in the State based on the average daily membership for the best continuous three out of the first four school months of pupils in the kindergarten program during the last school year in that respective school administrative unit.

Such allocations are to be made from funds appropriated to the State Board of Education for the kindergarten program. Any child who meets the requirements of G. Any child who is enrolled in kindergarten and not withdrawn by the child's parent or legal guardian shall attend kindergarten.

Notwithstanding any other provision of law to the contrary, subject to the approval of the State Board of Education, any local board of education may elect not to establish and maintain a kindergarten program. Presidential campaigns. Main article: United States presidential election, Main article: Inauguration of George H. Main article: George H.

Bush Supreme Court candidates. Further information: George H. Bush judicial appointments and George H. Bush judicial appointment controversies. Main article: Foreign policy of the George H. Bush administration. Main article: United States invasion of Panama. Further information: Revolutions of Further information: Gulf War. Further information: Savings and loan crisis.

Main article: Points of Light. Main article: List of people pardoned by George H. Bush — " PDF. Washington, D. Government Printing Office. Retrieved November 4, February 10, The New York Times. Retrieved April 4, Bush Gives the 'Speech of his Life ' ". Dave Leip's Atlas of U. Presidential Elections. Retrieved May 21, Gore , pp. The White House. Retrieved April 11, Bush: Inaugural Address".

January 20, Archived from the original on April 20, Danforth Quayle, 44th Vice President ". United States Senate. Retrieved August 24, ABC News. Retrieved April 6, Rutgers University. Borders and Bridges: A History of U. New York Times. Retrieved August 25, BBC News. July 31, Brands, "George Bush and the Gulf War of September 11, Federal Express. Duke University. Retrieved July 30, Table 1.

Some Unpublished papers

Retrieved May 23, Table 7. Joseph Campbell, Sept. Wolfson, Gerald A. This source includes a graph which shows GDP growth over time, with each quarter showing percent change from same quarter of the previous year. Vertical gray boxes show recessions.


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Los Angeles Times. Retrieved June 7, Bush: Domestic Affairs". Retrieved January 18, June 27, The Washington Post. Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Cornell University Press. The Bush Presidency: First Appraisals. The Washington Post October 23, , Print. October 23, Retrieved March 21, November 16, The Christian Science Monitor.

Executive Office of the President, Chronicle of Philanthropy. Points of Light. Jeffrey D. Schultz Greenwood Publishing Group. Michael Fix The Urban Institute. Ricochet: Confessions of a Gun Lobbyist. Daynes Moral controversies in American politics: cases in social regulatory policy 2 ed. Federation of American Scientists. United States Department of Justice. Retrieved May 17, American History: A Survey Vol. President and Fellows of Harvard College.

Retrieved April 23, Retrieved April 14, Retrieved May 22, November 5, Retrieved September 5, Apple Jr. November 4, The San Francisco Chronicle. Bush ". The Wall Street Journal. The Independent. January 22, Foreign Affairs. November 1, Retrieved May 3, Archived from the original on February 4, Listen Up, Mr. Foreign Policy. Miller Center. University of Virginia. American Experience.

October 3, April 1, Archived from the original on May 27, Retrieved November 5, Bush: Life in Brief". Bush Got Wrong". New Yorker. Retrieved August 30, February 19, Retrieved May 14, Brands, H. A world transformed Vintage, , a joint memoir--alternating paragraphs by each co-author; a primary source. Bush and the End of the Cold War.

Graff, Henry F. The Presidents: A Reference History 3rd ed. The Presidency of George Bush 2nd ed. Lawrence: UP of Kansas. Henriksen, Thomas H. Herring, George C. From Colony to Superpower; U. Foreign Relations Since Oxford UP. Larres, Klaus. Meacham, Jon New York: Random House. Naftali, Timothy George H. Times Books. Patterson, James Oxford University Press. Podhoretz, John Rossinow, Douglas C. The Reagan Era: A History of the s. Columbia University Press. Smith, Jean Edward George Bush's War.

Sununu, John H. Broadside Books. Updegrove, Mark K. Bush and George W. Vanhoonacker, Sophie. The Bush administration and the development of a European security identity Routledge, Waterman, Richard W. Presidential Studies Quarterly. Wicker, Tom George Herbert Walker Bush. Wilentz, Sean The Age of Reagan. Representative for TX-7 — State of the Union Address Chicken Kiev speech. A World Transformed All the Best Bush CVN Barbara Bush wife George W. Bush brother Samuel P. Presidents of the United States. Grant — Rutherford B. Hayes — James A. Garfield Chester A.

Roosevelt — Harry S. Truman — Dwight D. Eisenhower — John F. Kennedy — Lyndon B. Bush — Bill Clinton — George W. Bush — Barack Obama — Donald Trump —present. Wilson Harding Coolidge Hoover F. Roosevelt Truman Eisenhower Kennedy L. Bush Clinton G. Bush Obama Trump. Book Category List. Categories : Presidency of George H. Bush establishments in the United States disestablishments in the United States.

Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Library website. This article is part of a series about George H. Family Electoral history Pre-vice presidency U. Representative for Texas's 7th U. Ambassador U. Vice President. Secretary of State.

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